The loneliness of man before nature. Loneliness in the urban environment. Loneliness as a way of life. Alone in front of myself...
The film is dedicated to the artists of "Silver age" or "Fin de Siecle". This dedication applies primarily to Kazimir Malevich, and Edvard Munch. In the design of the poster used a picture of Edvard Munch's "Melancholy" (1892)
The artist, whose work in the West, put on a par with Gauguin and Cézanne, not very well known in Russia. Genius, considered the creator of a new era and who wrote the gloomy picture of the death, suffered a nervous breakdown from which it was treated. In his youth, he mentioned that the day will come when in front of his canvases will remove all hats, as if in a church, but to the public recognition he was still very far away. "None of my paintings, I - nothing," - once confessed Edvard Munch, whose works are now known far more than the author himself. To understand the original art of the artist, it is necessary to know how and what he lived, creating masterpieces "written in the blood of my heart."
In 1863 in Norway birthplace of the artist, whose work will be called an entirely new painting, blow-established tradition in art. Edvard Munch, whose biography is filled with tragic events that left their mark on his works, firmly entrenched in the history as the creator, whose work caused rapid emotional impact on the viewer. His childhood Edward recalled how bleak and full of losses. Having lost his mother and his beloved sister, who died of tuberculosis, and the boy was tragically took his life's journey. We know his recollection of that stage: "To my cradle flocked black angels madness, illness, death, and was accompanied by a lifetime."
After school Munch studying to be an engineer, but at some point realize that dreams only to paint. Known even the exact date - November 8, 1888, it was then in a personal blog post suffering pain appeared before a teenage life that he decided to become an artist. "I often wake up in a cold sweat and looked around my room to make sure in hell I" - confessed to the end of life of Edvard Munch. The paintings of the young artist passed his experience: he did not like "beautiful" picture, focusing on the fact that it is not visible for the outer shell of a man. Portraying people, he made casts of their inner world: "More is not there another artist, squeeze your theme to the last drop, like me."
A series of tragic withdrawals continued - Munch lost his father, younger brother, sister, died in a clinic for the mentally ill. This is reflected in the work of the painter - the grim theme of loneliness and death are gaining even greater force. Critics noted that the author had a remarkable ability to visually display your moods and emotions. After losses Munch considered the main cause of all the tragedies God. He renounces religion, searching for themselves a new system of values. Considering the world empty, the artist expresses the meaninglessness of human life and assures that only through art can achieve immortality. While in art school, Edvard Munch, whose paintings are difficult to attribute to a single direction, selflessly given to art. He did not want his work just to decorate the walls of houses or museums. "My paintings - this is what I experienced myself, my diary. They have given meaning to my life "- shared the most intimate painter.
Travel the world became acquainted with the genius of different directions and styles in art. He exhibited his works in galleries, but they caused too much publicity, and the exhibition was closed. Masters of the classical school of painting was considered strange pictures insulting to the viewer, and Munch himself called an anarchist. After the announcement of the exhibition "ugly" closing works become known and progressive young people begin to admire the scandalous pictures.
Accustomed to the loneliness of a young man running from relationships with women, gives them a fatal role in the fate of all men. The fair sex falling in love with an enthusiastic art strange young man with burning eyes, but Munch believed that strong feelings weaken its thrust to create. Known artist passionate affair with the daughter of a noble merchant, ended tragically for both: obsessive girl who became a burden for a young man tried to poison him, having learned from Edward about the separation, and after it literally brought back from the dead, she shot in the arm to the painter.
Underwent several operations and lost a finger, Munch suffered for his creative future. In unsociable artist then begins the real case of persecution mania. His nerves are increasingly handed, and broke the artist at random people. He could even beat those who, in his opinion, unflattering comments about it. Frequent attacks, accompanied by aggressive actions lead Munch in a psychiatric hospital, where he was treated with electroshock. The artist knew that he was not alone in coping with alcoholism and depression, and sent for expert help. I must say that the disease did not leave him and after long-term treatment. But Edward took it, thinking that his work is inextricably linked to mental breakdowns.
After intensive therapy Munch released. "There is not so easy to get out. All the questions can not be answered as you want. It is necessary to guess what you expect from doctors, or stay there forever, "- shared memories of Edvard Munch. The works of the brilliant artist of the time that he spent in the hospital, are becoming popular. Masters, who became famous overnight, bombarded with offers galleries of the world, and private collectors. But "dark Norwegian" as it is sometimes called contemporaries, was in no hurry to part with their child. He could not do without seeing his paintings.
The artist Edvard Munch drew all ideas within himself, trying to help others with their creativity to understand the complexities of life and to explain its purpose. After 1900, he creates a collection of portraits, becoming a major genre in his work. It was memorable works in which the delicate strings of the human soul investigated. The artist did not write to order portraits of those who knew little, and transfer only the resemblance was not satisfied.
But the later period of the master's many critics recognize the most unfortunate. Edvard Munch, whose works were filled with deep philosophical ideas, but found weak in terms of art, has worked hard in his workshop. His style has changed for the worse, and pictures painted rough strokes, disappointed their fans. It is known that the author suffered from eye disease, because of which he later completely stopped working. Munch died in early 1944, near Oslo, during the German occupation. He did not leave after the death of his disciples, because his original art was too personal and subjective.
Lonely and difficult to converge with people Edvard Munch, whose works testify to his undoubted talent, during his lifetime caused a lot of talk about his work, which reflected the contradictory personality of the author. Is not willing to part with the paintings suffered and yearned to merge with them together, Munch continues to live in his paintings, have made him immortal.
The painting depicts a sad young man, sitting with his head in his hand, on a desolate rocky coast, which is known real mosgortranse landscape. "Melancholia" was one of the paintings in which completely crystallizes the characteristic style of the artist: expressive, clearly delineated contours, simplified forms, dark, somewhat mysterious mood. The influence of impressionism, visible in his recent works ("Night in St. cloud", "Starry night," "Spring on Karl Johan street"), practically is not felt. It is assumed that the formation of his new style was influenced by the works of Paul Gauguin that he could see in France.
The hero of the picture is a close friend of Munch Jappe Nielsen, at the time of writing the paintings involved in an unhappy affair with ODA Krogh, the wife of influential artist Christian Krogh.
For the first time the picture was presented in 1891 at the Autumn exhibition in Oslo. A laudatory review gave the picture of Christian Krog, despite the sensitivity of the situation (he knew about the affair his wife with Jappe Nielsen and that the painting depicts exactly Appe): master of Munch called "the first Norwegian symbolist" artist "worthy of the glory of the composer." Other critics were less supportive. Eric Varensell wrote that Munch exhibited in "unfinished paintings, oil pastels and mixed and smeared on the canvas, there are large areas which remain empty...". Explorer "Aftenposten" openly made fun of the picture, comparing figure APE with "smoked sausage."
Kazimir Malevich was born on 11 February 1879 in Kiev
The parents of Malevich and he were poles by birth. Father Kazimir Malevich Severin Malevich (nobles Volyn province Zhitomir district) and the mother of Ludwig (Ludwig A., nee Galinovsky) got married in Kiev February 26, 1878 (old style).
The father worked as a Manager in a sugar factory of the famous Ukrainian industrialist Tereshchenko in the village of Parkhomivka (Kharkiv province).
Mother Ludwig A. (1858-1942) was a housewife. The couple Malevich was born fourteen children, but only nine of them survived to adulthood. Casimir was born first. To paint he began to study independently after the age of 15, his mother gave him a set of paints.
Your first squares - red and black - Malevich wrote in 1914, ("But he (square) has not yet realized by the artist himself" (E,F. Kovtun) "the Beginning of Suprematism"), and in 1915, Malevich wrote a letter Maturino who was going to reissue the drawings for the Opera "victory over the sun" (Malevich performed sketches of scenery for this Opera): "the Veil represents a black square, the embryo of all possibilities, and takes the same terrible power (emphasis mine, L. P.) He is the founder of cube and sphere (circle, note, not referred to L. P.). Some critics called the square of Malevich giocondas of the twentieth century, that helped me discover levandowski square - "the germ of all possibilities".
And the genius of Malevich, the artist, who once declared that the black square is "zero", "step zero", "death of painting", etc. turned out to be visionary - his BLACK SQUARE symbolizes the death of painting and that of Russia in which he lived. This is his terrible power.
The picture was painted by Malevich in the summer and autumn of 1915.
According to the artist, he wrote her a few mesyatsev.Vposledstvii Malevich wrote several copies of "Black Square" (according to some sources, seven).
It is known that in the period from 1915 to the early 1930s, Malevich created four versions of "Black Square", which differ in pattern, texture and color.
According to the artist himself, "Square" occupied a central place in his work. "I am a long time could not eat or sleep," - said Malevich - "and he did not know what did."
"Right," art critic perceived "Black Square" as a gesture of defiant anti-Christian. The largest at that time art critic, founder of association
"World of Art" Alexander Benois wrote immediately after the show: "Undoubtedly, this is the icon that futurists gentlemen put Madonna in return." "Left" critic realized "Square" as well, but reacted to it vostorzhenno.Sam Malevich in his lectures about art called "Square", "the Royal Child", thereby bringing together the "square" with the image of Christ.
In Vitebsk period of creativity interpretation of the "square" has changed. The leaflet UNOVIS number 1, which was released in Vitebsk November 20, 1920, stated: "The overthrow of the old world of art shall be vychertano on your hands Wear black square as a sign of the global economy.".
In the future, some researchers have linked the "Square" with Jewish motifs in the works Malevicha.Leonid Katsis the ideology Vitebsk UNOVIS, the Temple of Jerusalem and the Talmud raises the "Black Square" to tefillin. Tefillin - a ritual object, puts on the Jews at prayer. It is understood that the black cube on a black background and give us the desired "black square on a black background" .Tot same author records the fact of wearing a "black squares" some participants supremacist movement.
"Square" at times in opposition t. N. "White dragon", without drawing a blank sheet having a symbolic meaning in Taoism.
Regarding the "Black Square" written a lot of articles, books and other things, created a lot of paintings inspired by this thing, and the more time passes from the day it was written, the more necessary for us the mystery that has no otgadki or, on the contrary, has its infinite quantity". The uniqueness of Malevich's painting is that it has a large number of possible interpretations.
Kazimir Malevich painting, written in 1915.
Named on the back of "The Woman in two dimensions." It is a red square on a white background, slightly different in shape from the square. It is noted that the "Red Square", as the "Black Square", has the property that the area of the white background is the area of the shaded square.
In the story of Tolstoy's "Diary of a Madman" describes the room where Theodore begins to feel mortal anguish: "whitewashed square room. As I remember, it was painful to me that this small room was exactly square. The window was one with gardinkoy -. Red " That is, the red square on a white background is, in fact, a symbol of longing. Malevich himself explained the concept of his first "Black Square", that "the square - the feeling, the white space - a void for this feeling."
The red square on a white background graphically depicts the fear of death and emptiness.